The Ledger Series – Floris dip into their archive for fabulous fragrant inspiration…

Reviving nine archival scents for their thrilling new collection, The Ledger Series is a fantastic opportunity to wear some of the most truly iconic – and timeless – Floris fragrances

 

The long-distinguished history of Floris first began in the dreams of one Juan Famenias Floris, who in 1730 sailed from his native Minorca to set up in London. Marrying an English girl, he settled in business as a barber on Jermyn Street within the fashionable St. James’s area, first making hair combs and then assuaging his homesickness by blending fragrant oils he’d transported from Europe. Customers soon took to ordering bespoke blends, all recorded in leather-bound ledgers, enabling Floris to re-create them should further supplies be required in the future – and thus a fragrant dynasty was born.

Many of those original ledgers, order forms and letters of thanks are still in existence, preserved by successive generations of the Floris family, and offering a uniquely fascinating glimpse of British fragrant taste through the ages. Their books boast orders from Admirals serving under Lord NelsonFlorence NightingaleGeorge IV, through to Winston Churchill. In 1820, Floris received the first of 16 Royal Warrants, the most recent being the title: Perfumers to HM The Queen Elizabeth II and Manufacturers of Toilet Preparations to HRH The Prince of Wales. (Now, of course, King Charles!)

 

 

 

And now, Floris have returned to their archive to revive NINE stunning fragrances from their archives, as part of The Ledger Series. Floris explain: 

‘The Ledger Series stands as a testament to the passion and dedication of our perfumery team. This collection is a labour of love, bringing back nine fragrances from the Floris archive that were once discontinued. Meticulously delving into the original family formula books, our team studied and carefully revived these fragrances, ensuring they are preserving the timeless essence of Floris.
Utilising the authentic formulas and employing the finest available ingredients, our perfumery team diligently restored these classic scents within The Ledger Series. This exceptional collection includes Rose Geranium, Malmaison Encore, Sandalwood, Vetiver, Red Rose, Islay, Edwardian Bouquet, Soulle Ámbar and Stephanotis. Each scent, meticulously revived, encapsulates the essence of its historical roots, promising a sensorial journey through time and sophistication.’
You can read the full fabulous stories behind each fragrance in the links below, but for now, let’s explore the fascinating collection…

Floris Ledger Series: Rose Geranium

‘Rose Geranium was first introduced by Floris in 1890 when pink geranium was added to the existing Geranium fragrance. One of our most esteemed and loved clients was Marilyn Monroe, a star that has transcended time and captured our imaginations like no other. The characteristic notes of geranium are enhanced by the fresh citrus nuances of citronella and a hint of rose. A harmonious heart with an uplifting blend of palmarosa, the timeless beauty of rose, and the gentle touch of rosewood. A captivating heart that evokes elegance and grace leaves space to a simply woody base note accord of cedarwood. A grounded warm woody presence adds depth and sophistication to the delicate bouquet.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum

Floris Ledger Series: Sandalwood

‘Led by the legendary Sir Ranulph Fiennes, the historic Great Transglobal Expedition of 1979 embarked on a daring journey to the South Pole, meticulously tracing the Greenwich Meridian. Amidst this epic odyssey, Floris proudly supported the expedition with a suite of provisions, including our intrepid Sandalwood Eau de Parfum. Using the finest sandalwood oil from Mysore, the fragrance is enriched by a captivating blend of bergamot, rose, cardamom and black pepper in the top note, creating a harmonious and intriguing opening. Sandalwood reveals an enchanting heart with orris and star anise, infusing the scent with a mesmerizing blend of floral elegance and subtle spice. The smooth sandalwood scent is enhanced by warm musk’s and the allure of earthy notes of pachouli, creating a creamy and woody base.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum

Floris Ledger Series: Malmaison Encore

‘Malmaison was a firm favourite of Oscar Wilde who used to visit the Floris Shop to see the Floris family, proudly wearing a green dyed carnation in his lapel. Malmaison Encore opens with a spicy blend of clove, cinnamon and zesty lemon, creating a warm and inviting top note. The floral bouquet of carnation, rose, and ylang ylang, build the romantic and sensual heart of the fragrance, while the base notes of cedarwood, musk and patchouli bring depth and sophistication leaving a lingering trail of captivating allure. The final touch of vanilla together with the spicy carnation, evoke the elegance and timeless beauty of this floral oriental fragrance.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum

Floris Ledger Series: Islay

‘The unisex scent pays homage to the flora of the romantic and isolated Islay and to the wonderful whisky that has lovingly been produced on the island, it is said, since the 1300s. Inspired by the tasting notes and deep flavours of the rich amber liquor, as well as the beautiful island itself, known as “The Queen of the Hebrides”, Islay is also a celebration of the time-honoured ritual of appreciating the deep complex flavours and subtle nuances of whisky.
Earthy green top notes of galbanum bring to mind the wild, windswept gorse hedgerows of Islay complimented by bergamot, highlighting the initial citrus character found in many of Islay’s whisky blends. Orris adds a smooth and soft floral note whilst adding balance to the rich, rugged peaty and smoky accord of prickly juniper oil and patchouli. Finally, just a subtle hint of vanilla with warm comforting musk’s in the base of the fragrance imbue a reassuring outro to the scent.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum

Floris Ledger Series: Stephanotis

‘One of the original Floris fragrances created in 1816. Stephanotis draws inspiration from the Stephanotis flower, also known as the “bridal veil” flower. The fragrance uses oil from the “Madagascan Jasmine”, a flower which symbolises “happiness in marriage”, a delicate beauty and sweet fragrance that embodies love, purity and devotion. Originally created as a bridal perfume for the high society weddings that often took place at the magnificent St. James’s church, built by Christopher Wren in 1684, Stephanotis soon became an established favourite to be worn by brides.
Stephanotis opens with a vibrant freshness of orange blossom, petitgrain, and a touch of green galbanum note. The heart notes of spicy carnation, aromatic coriander, delicate stephanotis and intoxicating jasmine create a floral symphony that captivates the senses with its elegance and allure. A velvety embrace of musk, the soft powdery notes and the soothing essence of sandalwood in the base gracefully concludes this fragrance, leaving a long-lasting warmth and sophistication.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum

Floris Ledger Series: Vetiver

‘Vetiver was a firm favorite of Legendary Actor and Director Sir Laurence Olivier who used to visit the Floris Shop to see the family. Originally inspired by the exotic aromas, vibrant colours and energy of India. The vetiver plant has been revered for centuries in the mystical land of India. It captures the essence of the rich cultural heritage, spirituality and natural beauty. The earthy and aromatic roots of the vetiver plant embody strength and a connection to nature, creating a captivating and sophisticated scent experience. A twist of bergamot and lemon lifts the distinctive and tenacious notes of vetiver from the heart of lavender, and geranium.
The Vetiver fragrance entices with aromatic heart notes of cinnamon, clove and invigorating coriander blending with the earthy and smoky essence of vetiver. The warm spices contrast with the deep and long-lasting base notes of amber, soothing frankincense, rich patchouli, and comforting sweet tonka bean, creating a captivating and inviting olfactory journey.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum

Floris Ledger Series: Edwardian Bouquet

‘Edwardian Bouquet is an expression of the good life; it’s the finest of town and country. Rooms perfumed with hyacinths in springtime, delicate blooms of jasmine in the garden and weekend forest walks, the autumn air heavy with woods and rich oakmoss. Edwardian Bouquet was first introduced into the Floris range in 1901 as a celebration of the new era. The fragrance was then reintroduced in 1984 with the rediscovery of the original formula while going through the family archives.
Opening with the sparkling citrus freshness of bergamot and mandarin combined with a distinctive green accord and the delicate allure of hyacinth. The heart reveals a bouquet of flowers, jasmine, delicate rose and sensual ylang ylang intertwine their floral beauty to create a timeless and elegant olfactory experience, while the fragrance resonates with a base of warm amber, velvety musk, and rich earthy notes of oakmoss and patchouli, creating a sense of elegance and nostalgia.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum

Floris Ledger Series: Soulle Ámbar

‘Sun-filled days and languid evenings where opulent sparks of pineapple and zesty citrus drift on the breeze. Inspired by Floris founder Juan Famenias Floris’s roots on the Balearic Island of Minorca, the fragrance embodies a leisurely Mediterranean spirit. The name Soulle, translates from Spanish as ‘sunlight and eastern wind’. A spirit of adventure, a statement of freedom, Soulle Ámbar excites the senses, anticipating new discoveries just over the horizon inviting you to embrace life and take a chance.
Soulle Ámbar opens with a fresh crisp vibrant note of pineapple capturing the senses. Lentisque and galbanum create an elegant, modern green accord balanced with fresh crisp fruity note of pineapple. A burst of invigorating bergamot creates a vibrant opening to the fragrance. The heart reveals the lush of jasmine, geranium and melilot. The spicy resinous notes are complemented by the tingling pink peppercorns. As it unfolds, the delicate sweetness of vanilla, amber and musk captures the essence of sophistication and leaves a sensual base to complete the fragrance.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum

Floris Ledger Series: Red Rose

‘Worn by many well-known names over more than two centuries and particular cherished favourite of legendary Vogue Editor Grace Coddington writes in her memoirs: 1959 – “I was probably 19 or 20 when I moved to London with a friend to go to modelling school. We rented a room in Notting Hill Gate, which is an incredibly smart area now, but in those days it wasn’t like that at all. I met people in the coffee bar who signed me up for the Vogue modeling contest, which I won, and who introduced me to the photographer Norman Parkinson. My first picture was a nude for him! [With the money I made] I went to all the old arcades with all the old shops, because I loved old, traditional things—I will, always—and Floris was one of those stores. I didn’t go in with the intention of buying a perfume. I went in because I was responding to the visuals as much as a fragrance I found there called Red Rose. I just loved the idea that it was pretty much crushed rose petals and that was that.”
Red Rose opens with sparkling leafy green notes before the balanced, enigmatic rose character gradually reveals itself. The fragrance blooms with the warmth of cinnamon leaf and clove bud intertwined with the delicate embrace of palmarosa, and the essence of Rose Absolute at its heart. The base notes of vetiver, cedarwood and sandalwood create a comforting effect, while the sensuous depth of musk create a captivating and enduring fragrance.’
£220 for 100ml eau de parfum
Written by Suzy Nightingale

Wild about Wilde – Floris pay fragrant homage to one of their most famous clients

With their hearts firmly embedded in their magnificent heritage, Floris manage to make fragrances that pay homage to their history yet remain so completely contemporary and wearable. It’s a tricky balancing act to achieve, and one that many heritage houses aspire to, but somehow Floris always manage to keep their fingers on the perfumed pulse. As they explain it…

‘Keeping integrity and compassion, is an elegant dance between the then and now.’

You can read all about the extraordinary history of Floris in our page dedicated to this proudly British house, but for the latest launch, Floris takes us directly to the pages of their legendary ledger – the records book that’s been witness to the orders from their clientelle through the ages. Basically put, it’s a perfumed Who’s Who, with their customer’s name encompassing Royalty, Winston Churchill, Florence Nightingale and Marilyn Monroe (to name but a few!)

 

 

One of their most famous clients was Oscar Wilde, and, says Floris, this ‘elegant dance’ between the past, the present, and the future is something Oscar himself was all too aware of.

‘Wilde visited the shop in the late 1800s to discuss with the family current local affairs and general happenings around Jermyn Street. Fashioned with dandy and finely polished sophistication, Wilde fastened a single green carnation to his lapel as the final accoutrement for the perfect soigné. A Parisian trend to identify oneself as homosexual.’

 

 

‘Wilde was a creative revolutionary of individuality, freedom and self. Forward thinking with ideals of the future that others had yet thought about or embraced. His notions of love were expressed through his writing, most passionately, between himself and Sir Alfred Douglas, Star-Crossed lovers, forbidden to love. Desire yearns through corresponding letter and unveiling poetry colliding together with hope of a loving and freer life.’

And so, with Wilde the fragrance, Floris invite us to… ‘Immerse yourself in the romanticism of ‘Wilde’, our new Eau de Parfum. Take charge with reckless love, vigour and intention, to indulge an olfactory sense.’

 

Floris Wilde

‘Wilde captures sparkling bergamot and gentle citrus blossom, layered with the spicy combination of white jasmine, ginger and green carnation, an affirmation to Wilde’s love and affection to Lord Alfred Douglas. The warming base of pure sandalwood oil, olibanum and benzoin add a rich sophistication and depth. Understated but with an unmistakable presence.’

Top Notes: Bergamot, Marine, Citrus Blossom

Heart Notes: Dianthus, Ginger, White Jasmine

Base Notes: Sandalwood, Olibanum, Benzoin

£180 for 100ml eau de parfum (also available from £30 for 10ml) florislondon.com

 

 

 

In an age when love of all kinds are now thankfully celebrated, we should never forget the agonies Oscar Wilde suffered from public censure, which eventually saw him imprisoned, undergoing Hard Labour, emerging finally as a ruined man, broken forever. So, how even more important and wonderful it is to celebrate his love, now, and to wear it proudly, to waft down the street in a cloud of Wilde and allow ourselves to fall wildly in love (with whomever we want, and with ourselves) with every single spritz of this dandy-ish, delectable new scent…

 

Written by Suzy Nightingale

Floris – Royalty, Churchill & Marilyn Monroe loved them: here’s why YOU should, too…

Floris have scented everyone from royalty, Florence Nightingale, prime ministers and even Marilyn Monroe, but now you can dip into their incredible history (and try some their more contemporary fragrances) in their beautifully curated Floris Discovery Collections

 

The long-distinguished history of Floris first began in the dreams of one Juan Famenias Floris, who in 1730 sailed from his native Minorca to set up in London. Marrying an English girl, he settled in business as a barber on Jermyn Street within the fashionable St. James’s area, first making hair combs and then assuaging his homesickness by blending fragrant oils he’d transported from Europe. Customers soon took to ordering bespoke blends, all recorded in leather-bound ledgers, enabling Floris to re-create them should further supplies be required in the future – and thus a fragrant dynasty was born.

 

Many of those original ledgers, order forms and letters of thanks are still in existence, preserved by successive generations of the Floris family, and offering a uniquely fascinating glimpse of British fragrant taste through the ages. Their books boast orders from Admirals serving under Lord Nelson, Florence Nightingale, George IV, through to Winston Churchill. In 1820, Floris received the first of 16 Royal Warrants, the most recent being the title: Perfumers to HM The Queen Elizabeth II and Manufacturers of Toilet Preparations to HRH The Prince of Wales. (Now, of course, King Charles!)

 

 

And then there was Marilyn Monroe. The scent the world’s biggest sex-symbol always made sure to stock up on? In their extraordinary archive (some of which is on display in the rear of their Jermyn Street boutique), Floris happen to have an original form detailing Marilyn’s order for their surprisingly unisex and greenly fresh Rose Geranium. Indeed, she loved it so much she requested SIX bottles at a time be delivered to her in Beverley Hills! (NB: A far more contemporary rose is their fragrance A Rose For… in The Private Collection – an intriguingly smoky gossamer embrace).

 

 

 

 

The original Floris shop still stands on Jermyn Street. (A couple of generations ago, fragrances were actually manufactured two floors below street level, in a basement known as ‘the mine’.) Now beautifully refurbished, the boutique many other intriguing artefacts to discover on display, along with a wide wardrobe of perfumes to explore. Edward Bodenham – an ancestor of Juan Famenias Floris himself – is the current Perfumery Director at Floris, with fragrance clearly in his blood.

Floris Classic Collection Set £35

As he explains: ‘I feel immensely proud to be part of the family business and to have the opportunity to help introduce our perfume house to a new generation. I have such fond memories of visiting the shop from a young age, and it is very nostalgic for me to be around the fragrances that I have grown up with my whole life. They really are like old friends to me.’

 

No matter how fascinating or notable their past, however, no perfume house could merely trade off their history. So as Edward notes – and more recent creations like sun-drenched Neroli Voyage in the Classic Collection and utterly addictive Honey Oud in Private Collection, prove – Floris are ‘always evolving. We have to be experimental and explorative when working on new fragrances – in just the same way my forefathers were in their day.’ Adding: ‘I hope that they would be proud of our creations today.’

Floris Private Collection Set £35

No question about it, in our minds. And we say: here’s to the next 300 years or so, Floris!

Written by Suzy Nightingale

Floris celebrate Florence Nightingale’s White Rose history

Did you know that Floris has a long standing relationship with the founder of modern nursing: Florence Nightingale? And now, with Floris donating 15% of sales from her favourite fragance to the White Rose Appeal, fronted by Helena Bonham Carter, and having been recently featured in the drama series Killing Eve, it seems timely to nose further into this intriguing historical snippet…

Floris explain that this direct connection to perhaps the world’s most famlous nurse, can be found in a personal letter she wrote them.

Floris’ White Rose fragrance was a favourite perfume of Florence Nightingale, and in our Jermyn Street shop we display a treasured letter written by Nightingale in 1863 to “Mr Floris” thanking him for his “beautiful sweet smelling nosegays”.

 

 

Alongside the White Rose Campaign, Floris have committed to donating 15% of all sales of White Rose Eau de Toilette to the foundation for a 12 month period.’

And oh! White Rose is a simply beautiful scent to wear, so what a wonderful way to celebrate Florence – and all nurses and midwives – most especially during this crisis. The fragrance itself is a couquet of velvety roses dusted with soft iris, swathed in warm amber and grounded with earthy musk. At once strikingly elegant and wonderfully confident, it’s something we shall be reaching now more than ever…

Floris White Rose £80 for 100ml eau de toilette
florislondon.com

Floris continue: ‘The Florence Nightingale Foundation does amazing work supporting nurses and midwifes through its scholarships and has done so since its formation in 1929. This year marked a big year for the foundation, particularly today on the bicentenary of her birth.’

Sadly, due to the current situation, Floris say that ‘…Westminster Abbey was due to be filled with nurses for an annual service to mark Florence Nightingale’s birthday but was cancelled this year due to the coronavirus pandemic. In the current circumstances, the foundation launched a special programme to equip nurses and midwives with the skills to support the emotional well being of those working directly with Covid-19 patients and the owners of Floris have made the decision to team up with the charity to support their fundraising efforts.

 

 

And so, in partnership with actress Helena Bonham Carter, the foundation have launched the White Rose Appeal, a symbol of hope and re-birth. You can support the Florence Nightingale White Rose Appeal by buying a special anniversary e-white rose in honour of a nurse or midwife who has helped you or a loved one at any point in your lives. Every white rose bought will go on to form part of an actual floral display to be created at Westminster Abbey when lock down comes to an end, marking and honouring the contribution of nurses and midwives everywhere.’

Buying a white rose is a simple way to honour our nurses and midwives. We must never forget the sacrifice they make on an everyday basis during this time.’

Helena Bonham Carter

Fragrant fans currently glued to the latest season of Phoebe Waller-Bridge’s Killing Eve Netflix series have been treated to a peek inside lead character Villanelle’s favourite perfumery… which just happens to be the 89 Jermyn Street HQ of Floris!

‘I want to smell powerful. I want to make people gag with it,’ Villanelle tells the Floris perfumer dring her visit. ‘Can you do that for me?’

 

‘…I want to smell like a Roman Centurion who’s coming across an old foe, who in battle once hurt him greatly,’ she continues. ‘But since then, the Roman Centurion has become emperor, and is now powerful beyond measure.’ The perfumer pauses, before tactfully suggesting: ‘Maybe something more… woody?’

I’m sure Floris’ perfumers receive all sorts of interesting bespoke comissions, but perhaps not quite so… unusual as this request!

You can read all about the time I was lucky enough to have my own personal perfume made by Floris in-house Perfumer Penny Ellis, here. But long story short: I didn’t mention Roman Centurion’s (or making people want to gag) in my brief…

From Florence Nightingale (and their myriad famous customers from their archives) through to Helena Bonham Carter and now, Villanelle – Floris certainly has a diverse heritage and continues to thrive as London’s oldest surviving perfumery: something of which we can all be proud and will continue to support.

Now, Roman Centurians aside, what brief would you like to set a Floris perfumer for a bespoke fragrance when we can step inside those hallowed doors once more…?

By Suzy Nightingale

Floris River Dawn – hand-poured, By Request

Floris have released River Dawn, a limited edition fragrance of only 200 hand-poured bottles. Invoking shady streams and woodland walks, it’s definitely making us spring-ready…

Venturing out to explore the River Avon for their inspiration, the Floris perfumery team followed its meandering course as it begins in the beautiful, golden-stoned Cotswolds and as various tributaries merge, finalling flowing through Wiltshire on its way to the sea.

Edward Bodenham, Perfumery Director at Floris, spoke about their fragrant journey:
‘Historically we always launch our hand poured collection in late January, when winter is setting in but nature provides a few early signs of spring, particularly on our river banks. I love this time of year and whilst working on the ‘River Dawn’ scent with our team, it became clear that I wasn’t alone. Our rivers drive us on, providing tranquillity and uplifting our spirits, even in the harshest coldest winter, as the sun rises on a new day, they continue to shape our land, our geology, our industry and trade. They are a constant source of inspiration.

I recently walked along the banks of the Avon near Bradford Upon Avon. It’s a part of the world that for me encapsulates a huge amount of the beauty of our country. Interestingly our perfumer, Penny Ellis, who worked with me in creating this fragrance is a keen river swimmer who has swam sections of the Avon during these colder months which gave her huge inspiration when composing the scent.

We wanted to reflect the vibrant yet reflective tranquillity of flowing, shimmering water. How it feels to be in that raw environment. The natural beauty of the cold river bank, signs that spring is on its way as tea olives force through the cold, and snow drops appear in the shade of wooded forests, never far from the water. Most of all, we wanted to portray that emotion felt when rising before the dawn to see these landscapes completely unspoilt, before the world awakes. The river dwellers, fishermen, swimmers, rowers and those who still earn a living, working in harmony with its flow.’

Love at first sniff?
From the first spray, you’ll be transported to those gurgling tributaries with a crisp, galbanum freshness that speaks of green shoots bravely poking their heads above ground. Think fats buds just about to blossom, spiderwebs bejewelled with dewdrops, the cheering sight of snowdrops and hyacinths and a drift of spring’s first apple blossom in the air. Grounded with soothing sandalwood and delicately dusted with orris, this is the perect thing to wear when you want to celebrate that subtle shift in the seasons – not quite the end of winter, but good lord it’s almost in sight. A lightening of days and spirits, then, that make this a must-have (and a beautiful choice for any spring brides, we say).

Read more about the historic heritage of Floris in our page dedicated to their story…

Floris River Dawn £180 for 100ml eau de parfum
Only available at 89 Jermyn Street and florislondon.com

Written by Suzy Nightingale

Floris, fashion & fragrance with Alex Schulman & Amber Butchart

For the launch earlier this year of their so-sophisticated 1927 fragrance, Floris gathered together a curated group of guests to 89 Jermyn Street to celebrate the inspiration for the latest in their Fragrance Journal series, with two very special women discussing the rich and intertwined histories of fashion and fragrance… and we were thrilled to be present!

Scroll down to watch part of their fascinating conversation, and read our review of this stunning scent…

Dissecting nearly 100 years of social history in London, fashion historian, TV presenter and author Amber Butchart, former Vogue editor, author and journalist Alexandra Shulman, Floris Perfumery Director Edward Bodenham and Head of Marketing Alex Oprey explored how to bottle a moment in time. And now, Floris have released a video so you can watch along.

As part of their Fragrance Journals series, Floris created a very special time capsule, but exlained they wanted to make sure it smelled current and totally wearable for today – these are no museum pieces, but living homages to eras that have changed our world forever. The end of the 1920’s marked revolutionary new fashion movements, especially for women – cutting their hair short, smoking, dancing, partying all night and wearing loose-fitting, calf-length or shorter dresses that flirted with scandal.

Floris say: ‘The Fragrance Journals are a series of unique Eau de Parfums, capturing the heart and soul of London throughout the decades of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s and most recently the 1920s.

Each fragrance weaves and knits its way through the fabric of a key moment, district, and culture of the time, bringing out a true reflection of a city which has the ability to both adapt to change, yet remain rooted in its identity. A love letter to London, its social fabric and its people.’

Read on for our fragrant review…

Floris 1927
1927 kicks off with a swing as aldehydes burst like champagne bubbles into bergamot, and we can almost hear the giggles as cocktails are carried to the drawing room. Bright Young Things in barely-there bias-cut silks swing their pearls, violet, ylang ylang, narcissus and mimosa sashay their way to dancing on the tables – and an oakmoss-like, vanilla-musk base adds to sophisticated high-jinks.
£140 for 100ml eau de parfum
florislondon.com

Written by Suzy Nightingale